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Understanding the Structure of Candida, Yeast, and Fungi

We must understand the structure of candida, yeast, and fungi in order to successfully treat the condition. It truly is its own life form being part vegetable, animal, and bacterial in nature. It is this ability to adapt and change form, or shape shift, that causes it to be so hard to eradicate from the human body. Once we understand its composition, then we can successfully treat it by natural methods that are safe without damaging the body.

The Basic Cell Structure of Fungi

Fungi belong to the group of organisms called eukaryotes that are organisms with complex cells in which the cell has a nucleus. Animals and plants share this center nucleus among their cell types, bacteria do not.

candida albicans in scales

The cellular wall of fungi is composed of mannoproteins and chitin, which itself is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose. Chitin is vegetable in nature and what gives the cell its rigidity. It is close to the same composition of vegetables and what causes them to stand up and grow reaching for the sunlight. It is composed of one cell thick filaments that are often called hyphae and are very similar to roots of plants since fungi feed from these hyphae. These roots can puncture intestinal walls and organs in the human body creating leaky gut syndrome and other negative effects.

Inside of the cellular wall is a membrane composed of protein and fats, also known as a lipoprotein, which is the common cellular structure of animal and human cells. In the center is a nucleus and together with the lipoprotein membrane beneath the vegetable cell wall. The presence of the membrane makes them very similar to animal cells.

They reproduce asexually in many cases through the production of spores. They can also mate with other fungi when two mycelial hyphae, or sporangia, meet, which can produce two multinucleate ball shaped cells that join together to form a new nuclei. Asexual division is very much like bacteria that simply split and each cell contains the same set of chromosomes although bacteria have no nucleus. The spores have this splitting ability.

Fungi feed through the hyphae and spores they produce by releasing exoenzymes into the surrounding substrate they are attached to looking for glucose. These enzymes act like digestive enzymes in animals; but they digest the substrate from the outside of the fungi which then absorbs the broken down nutrient molecules through the cells. All fungi are decomposers with some species growing on dead organisms while some grow on, or within, living organisms.

In the case of vaginal candida albicans it becomes invasive by first puncturing the lining of the vaginal skin with the mycelial form with hyphae. If the food supply is good it begins to produce spores that can double its population in an hour. If the food supply is lean then it sends out more hyphae in search of food.

Candida's primary food source is simple carbohydrates which it uses to produce carbon so it can grow. Candida albicans must have biotin, which is also known as vitamin B7 to grow. Other species like Candida glabrata must have niacin and pyridoxine or vitamin B6 but candida glabrata does not produce hyphae, only spores and is extremely resistant to Diflucan. Because of this resistance it is believed to be an adaptation to the drug.

The Structure of Candida Yeast Biofilms

yeast biofilm construction

Yeast usually lives within the intestinal environment of the human body and usually causes no problems. But due to various environmental factors (see Cause) it switches to an invasive multi-cellular form known as candida from a unicellular or yeast form and begins to reproduce very rapidly. As it spreads it builds a biofilm much like h pylori does as a means of protection.1 These biofilms can range from 25 to 450 μm thick and begin to appear within the first 24 hours of colonization.

This biofilm is composed of cellulose, which is plant matter. Polynucleotides that are primarily its dna and rna material. Polypeptides which are proteins and polysaccharides which are a carbohydrate glucan. The biofilm also contains fibrinogen and fibronectin which are the same materials that the body uses to clot the blood at wound sites. These materials are bound together by lignands with stickiness properties much like lectins in wheat.

The biofilm will also contain spores, hyphae and pseudohyphae if that particular species of yeast produces them. In the species that don't produce hyphae and pseudohyphae, only produce spores or buds, they will be found in the biofilm as well. Occasionally, these spores or buds will be released into the host as the yeast tries to spread.

One structure of invasive candida grows as a smooth white colony, and one grows as a rod like flat gray colony. These colonies can also be either smooth or wrinkled. This can be the same species of candida and it can switch between the phases as a method of adaptation. Another strain of candida known to undergo switching or as I like to say, shape shifting, produces seven different types of colonies. This switching ability is reversible and is inherited from one generation to the other. Research has also shown that structural chromosome rearrangements are a way to maintain genetic diversity and is an adaptation strategy of this fungi.2 ,3

Candida hyphae reproduce sexually since the nucleus has two copies of the chromosomes to create two separate cells thru the sporangia when a male and female meet. If you could call it male and female, it really isn't, it’s more like two cells splitting themselves to join and create a new cell.

Yeast is the unicellular structure of candida albicans before it becomes multi-cellular candida and there have been over 1000 species classified although only around 150 species can survive within the human body. Yeast can be either anaerobic or aerobic and in the absence of oxygen they produce their energy by converting sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol, and you wonder why you have brain fog?.

They can reproduce asexually or sexually and during asexual reproduction the cell basically divides as a new bud to produce a new yeast cell without producing spores in the gut. Spores are believed to be highly conspicuous to the immune system, which is exactly what such a low-profile resident of the gut wants to avoid.4

Fungi are pretty fascinating when you think about it. Here we have a life form that is vegetable, animal, and bacterial in nature. The cell wall is composed of plant material and proteins, the membrane and nucleus are proteins and fats like an animal, and it reproduces like a bacteria in many cases asexually while carrying only one set of chromosomes depending on the species. It clones itself, and has the ability to shape shift and take 7 different forms while rearranging chromosomes as an adaptive strategy to insure survival. No wonder it is so hard to get rid of!

So How Do We Get Rid of Candida, Yeast and Fungi

Since fungi are decomposers the common speculation that it eats only sugar is a misnomer in my honest opinion. Yeast eats sugar and produces ethanol and carbon dioxide, yeast is the unicellular form. Candida is the multicellular form that sends out hyphae that feed by releasing exoenzymes into whatever it is attached to, or comes in contact with. This external digestion allows candida to absorb the nutrients through the hyphae. Therefore, everything is a possible food source but it is mostly looking for glucose.

Generally the highly acidic environment of the stomach will not allow candida to live so it is found in the small and large intestine mostly. Some kind of colon cleansing product is in order so a person stays regular, removes excess mucous from the top of the biofilm while helping to break down the biofilm itself, flushing it out and dislodging it from the intestinal wall.

Once you get through the biofilm, the cell wall of the fungi must be broken down to expose the soft lipoprotein membrane to destruction. Since the cell wall is composed of mostly cellulose and hemicellulose, if we introduce enzymes that specifically eat these substances we can break through more of the biofilm and cell wall.

Once the lipoprotein membrane is exposed we can use medically proven natural anti-fungals to attack the membrane and explode the nucleus.

Hi Dan!

I have been battling Candida for 9 months, tried many products and even many trips to doctors. Biofase and Profase are the first products I have taken where I am noticing a change. WHY don't they educate you on the biofilms!!!!. Thank you for opening my eyes to that fact. I am going to be ordering more soon!!!!

Thank you!


Most people that are infected with candida suffer from immune system dysfunction whether they are aware of it or not. For instance, in vaginal yeast infections there have been studies suggesting a deficiency in T-lymphocyte responses that permit the candida to take hold and allow its overgrowth.

So if we boost or stimulate immune system function, raise antioxidant levels in the intestine, generally provide the body with good nutrition through supplementation and diet. The immune system should also come into play and the macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils can begin to clean up the mess as they help destroy the fungi. IgA levels can also be increased through supplementation to increase protection and heal the walls, and other mucous linings, of the intestine.

In cases of chronic vaginal infections the hormones may have to be balanced since the yeast becomes hormone dependent as evidenced by the re-occurrence at particular times of the menstrual cycle. We know that it must have excess estrogen to survive and estrogen influences vaginal glucose levels.

Excess estrogen not only causes cancer, mostly breast, but also raises the glycogen levels in the vagina and glycogen is the food supply for yeast. If you suffer from bad pms symptoms the chances are you have high estrogen levels that need to be corrected. Your menstrual cycle should sneak up on with you with very little discomfort.

High cholesterol levels, plaque, scar tissue as in Fibromyalgia, etc, that are possibly created by the fungi, can be resolved with another special enzyme designed to digest these substances from within the body.

The Treatment Plan I suggest for fungi, candida, and yeast addresses all these problems and the candida has no natural defense against some of these products. They can't adapt and shape shifting doesn't help them either, they are totally defenseless, it is only a matter of time before you have won your battle with this beast!

Does any of this make sense to you?

If it does, take a look at the Yeast Infection Treatment page.

Yeast Infection Advisor Home & Structure of Candida Yeast Home

If you should have any questions please fill out the form on the contact page and I will get back to you as soon as possible.

Article written by Dan and edited for accuracy by Dr. Taylor


1. Microbiol Spectr. 2015 Aug;3(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0020-2015. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance. Chandra J, Mukherjee PK.

2. Mol Microbiol. 2017 Oct 14. doi: 10.1111/mmi.1386. Environmental and genetic regulation of white-opaque switching in Candida tropicalis.

3. Sang Hu Kim et al. Global Analysis of the Fungal Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Reveals Loss of Function of the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 as a Mechanism of Pathogen Adaptation, PLOS Pathogens (2015).

4. Robinson R (2008) Birds Do It, Bees Do It, but Candida albicans Does It Differently. PLoS Biol6(5): e121. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060121

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