Dr. Atmika Paudel, PhD says... the facts mentioned in this article about the probiotic bacterial species in Profase, isomalto-oligosaccharide, their anti-yeast and immune boosting activity are medically correct.
All About Profase, the best yeast killing probiotic you will ever find.
Just like Biofase, we developed Profase because I saw a need for a true yeast killing probiotic. One that was designed with bacteria which have been actually proven to kill yeast and fungi, not just aid in digestion and intestinal health. I also wanted the formula to include good bacteria that kill bad bacteria because half of the stool test results I see show no yeast, but bad bacterial over growth.
As hard as yeast and bad bacteria are to get under control, I wanted to include bacteria which have been proven to stimulate immune function so the infected persons immune system could help in the fight.
The probiotic bacteria also had to be those which are found in the intestine or that we are exposed to when we eat, like soil based bacteria. Soil based bacteria have been consumed by humans since time began when we ate plants. They are transient, meaning they do not colonize the intestine, but do a job while they pass through and some of these species are definitely yeast killers. In the soil, they kill fungi and without them, the world would be an overgrown fungal paradise.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a
rod-shaped, gram-positive lactic acid bacterium found in the mouth and
intestines of humans and other animals. It ferments sugars turning them
into hydrogen peroxides and lactic acid, (1,2); these chemicals
help create the right ph in the intestine for good bacterial growth,
which subsequently inhibits bad pathogens from surviving.
It also secrets antimicrobial compounds which keep pathogenic bacteria from forming colonies.(3) L. plantarum also has a mannose-specific adhesion, which allows it to attach to the intestinal wall and compete with pathogenic bacteria for food. (3,4)
L. plantarum has been found to suppress intestinal inflammation and to help maintain the tight epithelial cell junctions, which helps prevent leaky gut syndrome. (5,6). This function has also been helpful in the treatment of Colitis and prevents bile salts from entering the blood stream, causing the insane itching many people with yeast or bad bacterial over growth sometimes suffer from.
L. plantarum has been found to be helpful in the treatment of H. pylori (7); a pathogenic bacteria that leads many people to believe they have a yeast problem.
L. plantarum has been found to stimulate IgA and IgG antibodies as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines.(8) IgA is the antibody that defends the mucous linings of the body. Many people with yeast problems are deficient in IgA.
L. plantarum is very acid and bile salt tolerant which allows it to get into the intestinal tract alive.
Most importantly, a study done with L. plantarum in 2010 resulted in complete growth inhibition of Candida albicans invitro.(9)
Lactobacillus Casei is a mesophilic bacterium that is a gram positive, rod shaped, nonsporing, nonmotile, anaerobic, and does not contain any cytochromes. It is found in the human intestine, mouth, and reproductive tracts. It produces lactic acid, which kills harmful bacteria and helps boost production of good bacteria and balance ph levels.(1)
L. casei helps regulate the immune system in the intestinal tract by stimulating lymphoid tissue along the intestinal wall.(2) This process strengthens the immune response against harmful pathogens in the intestinal tract. Just like L. plantarum, it also competes for nutrients at the site of adhesion with foreign pathogens further reducing their numbers.
It is also capable of producing hydrogen peroxides, acetic, propionic, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and amphiphilic molecules to get rid of bad microbes in the body.(3)
In a study performed in 1997, L. casei was found to be more effective than Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri against Candida albicans in the intestines of mice.(4)
This ability, along with its immune stimulating benefits, is why I added this bacteria to Profase.
Bifidobacteriam Longum is a gram-positive, anaerobic, and branched rod-shaped bacterium that inhibits the growth of bad bacteria and is one of the first bacteria to colonize infants via breast milk. It can also be found in the female vaginal tract where it helps prevent bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections. It has been found to prevent and relieve diarrhea, reduce cholesterol, inhibit the growth of bad bacteria and boost immune function.(1)
It is a lactic acid producing bacteria that helps balance the pH in the intestine thereby creating a habitat that is not suitable for bad bacteria and other harmful pathogens.
Other studies have confirmed its ability to relieve antibiotic associated diarrhea, help reduce cholesterol levels, stimulate the immune system, and help prevent colon cancer.(2) It also binds bile salts (3), which helps control skin itching.
B. Longum has been found to help alleviate constipation of those who are on calorie restricted diets.(4) This is a common problem for people with intestinal yeast.
Bifidobacteriam Breve is a rod shaped, anaerobic and non-motile bacterium that is one of the major species of bacteria to be found in infants. It also inhabits the vaginal tract where it prevents the over growth of Candida yeast.
A published study in 2005 found it helped relive the symptoms of IBS, abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and rumbling sounds by 42%. (1)
Another study in 2010 was performed on cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. B. breve enhanced the intestinal immune system which resulted in having to administer less antibiotics to combat intestinal infections.(2)
In 2010 a study was done on mice infected with MSRA, a highly antibiotic resistant bacterial infection. Bifidobacteriam Breve saved most of the mice from death from the infection and when combined with one antibiotic injection on day seven, it helped save them all.(3)
Although not related to bad bacteria, but definitely related to recurring vaginal yeast infections; another study found that both B. breve and L. casei when taken together, helped reduce levels of BPA, which is a hormone disruptor found in many plastic water bottles.(4)
In 2012 a study was done on 42 otherwise considered healthy people that suffered from oral Candida (thrush). Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve were used together. At the end of the 30 day test, it was concluded that the probiotic bacteria significantly reduced the presence of Candida albicans and non-albicans species, and a significant increase in anti-candida IgA antibodies were noted.(5)
Another 2012 study found that B. breve and L. casei help reduce the effects of intestinal inflammation caused by Candida albicans.(6)
Bifidobacterium animalis lactis is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium found in the large intestines of humans and most mammals.
It has been found to increase IgA levels in infants whether they are breast fed babies or not, born naturally or by cesarean. This includes IgA antibodies to polio and rotovirus. This would make this probiotic extremely useful for non-breast fed babies immune system health.(1)
Studies have shown that B. animalis produces a 10-fold increase in immune function when it comes to combating the Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. It inhibited the infections spread to the spleen and liver, it boosted lymphocyte and phagocyte activity and stimulated intestinal antibodies to the bacterium.(2)
Although I am not pro flu vaccine, studies have shown that when B. animalis and L. casei are administered with the flu vaccine, IgG antibodies to the flu are significantly increased. Significant increases in IgA antibodies to the flu were also detected in the mouth.(3)
There really isn't any doubt in my mind that B. animalis is an excellent immune system stimulator and another study in 2001 proves that point again. In this study 30 volunteers between the ages of 63 and 84 participated over 9 weeks. It was noted that an increase in CD4 cells, CD25 cells, T lymphocytes and natural killer cells all increased. Phagocytic capacity and the tumoricidal activity of natural killer cells were also elevated.(4) Just so you know, a natural killer cell can kill a Candida yeast cell in 6/100's of a second.
The best study of all is published over on the American Society for Microbiology website and Pubmed.
The study was done using mice infected with Candida albicans. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium animalis were used to see if there was any effect on the Candida. All four probiotics helped reduce levels of the yeast, but L. casei and especially B. animalis worked the best. B. animalis alone reduced its incidence and severity while also increasing antibody and cell-mediated responses to Candida albicans.(5)
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a gram positive bacteria that is usually found in most peoples intestinal tract. As mentioned in the studies above it does have an effect on controlling yeast within the human body. It also has an effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridium perfringens.
L. acidophilus is also found in the human vaginal tract and does help prevent adherance of Candida cells to the vaginal epithelial cells.
Bacillus subtilis is a benign, ubiquitous(meaning everywhere) bacterium commonly recovered from water, soil, air, and decomposing plant residue.(Claus and Berkeley, 1986) It is gram positive, rod shaped, spore-forming bacteria that is able to form a tough protective shell to survive extreme environmental conditions. Up until a study done in 2009, Bacillus subtilis was always thought to be a soil based bacteria only, but the study determined that this bacterium is definitely part of the bacterial environment of the human gut.(1)
However, it does not appear to have any specialized attachment mechanisms typically
found in organisms capable of colonizing humans. (Edberg, 1991) Therefore, it is a transient inhabitant of the human gut and does not set up permanent colonies but does provide benefits as it passes through. (Edberg,
1991). One of those very important benefits is, it is a fungi killer or I would not have added it to Profase.
Bacillus subtilis has been in use since the late 1940's as an alternative medicine because it stimulates the immune system so well. It activates and increases IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies.(2) It also increases leukocytes and cytokines that target tumor cells.(3) It was used to treat gut and urinary tract diseases such as Rotavirus and Shigella before antibiotics came into wide spread use. It was pretty much abandoned because antibiotics are cheaper, despite far less toxicity to human gut flora.(4)
A study in 2007 was done on piglets that were fed soybean meal, one groups meal was fermented with Bacillus subtilis the other group was not. At the end of the study it was determined that the fermented soybean meal improved the morphology of the intestine as well as the activities of digestive enzymes.(5)
This bacterium produces antifungal compounds that are known to be effective against Monilinia fructicola (McKeen et al., 1986), Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Kimura and Hirano, 1988), and Rhizoctonia (Loeffler et al., 1986).
Mainly, bacillus subtilis is a proven fungicide used on vegetables, soybeans, peanuts, cotton, flowers and ornamental seeds.(6)
In March of 2018, a study that was published in Microbiological Research Journal, notes that Bacillus subtilis inhibited biofilm formation of Candida albicans. It also inhibited it from shifting from spore form to hyphal form, and inhibited its enzyme activity. It caused a reduction in egosterol content which resulted in down regulating its drug resistance abilities.(10)
Although I cannot post pictures, I have seen what it does to Candida albicans in a Petry dish. It is a world class Candida yeast killer and a superb immune system stimulator.
Isolmalto-Olgisaccharide is a short chain carbohydrate that is digestion resistant much like resistant starch, it feeds your good bacteria. Profase contains a very small amount of Isolmalto-Olgosaccharide, a prebiotic, to get the bacteria to flow into the capsule at the time of manufacture and does not feed pathogenic bacteria.
Isolmalto-Olgisaccharide is not to be confused with Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS). FOS is fructose based and it does feed your good bacteria as well but it also feeds the pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella, E. coli and many Clostridium species.(1)
Profase does not contain FOS, egg, dairy, preservatives, salt, sucrose, soy, wheat, yeast, nuts, corn, gluten, casein, potato, rice or any artificial colors or flavors. One capsule yields 30 billion bacteria and it is over formulated to extend shelf life, so you are actually getting close to 36 billion bacteria per capsule. It comes in either 60 capsules or 120 capsules.
Please refrigerate after opening. Profase is good for 2 years or more after the manufacture date if refrigerated.
What's the Best way to take Profase? See our 3-Step Treatment Plan here.
could cause a cleansing reaction in people that have severe over
growths of yeast or bad bacteria in their intestines, which makes them
feel sick or nauseated. In some cases it has been known to cause very loose stools. This initial cleansing reaction usually goes
away in a few days to a week.
If you have a systemic candida yeast problem or low immune function, Profase works extremely well with Biofase and Microfase. I would recommend taking two to three Biofase with one or two capsules of Profase one hour or more before breakfast and 30 minutes before bedtime.
Manufactured in The USA
The above article gives an overview about the product Profase which is claimed to contain 6 different species of probiotic bacteria and one short-chain carbohydrate isomalto-oligosaccharide. While I am not endorsing the product itself, I would say that the facts mentioned in the above article about the probiotic bacterial species and isomalto-oligosaccharide are correct.
Å study showed that isomalto-oligosaccharide improved bowel movement, stool output and microbial fermentation in colon in elderly men. (1) The study also claims that there were no apparent adverse effects.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given isomalto-ologosaccharide a GRAS status, given that it is consumed not more than 15g per serving and not more than 30 g per day. (2)
Lactobacillus plantarum has been reported to have antioxidant activities. (3)
In a clinical trial , L. plantarum 299v strain was found to improve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome such as abdominal pain and bloating. (4)
Similarly, L. casei was found to be beneficial in antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections when given in combination with other probiotic bacteria.
In another study, Bifidobacetrium longum improved the symptoms of common cold and shortened the duration when given in combination with another probiotic bacteria B. bifidum. (6), and B. breve was found to reduce body fat mass and percent body fat in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7)
Similarly, B. lactis strainHN019 was found to reduce the whole gut transit time and reduce the frequency of the functional gastrointestinal symptoms, (8) and Bacillus subtilis strengthens intestinal barrier. (9)
Similarly, certain strains of L. plantarum, and Bifidobacteria have found to be useful in ulcerative colitis. (10)
1. Effects of
isomalto-oligosaccharides on bowel functions and indicators of
nutritional status in constipated elderly men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Feb;20(1):44-9.
2. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Feb 10, 2009. GRAS Notice No. GRN 000246.
3. Antioxidant activity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Food Chem. 2012 Dec 1;135(3):1914-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.06.048. Epub 2012 Jun 29.
4. Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. Aug 14, 2012; 18(30): 4012-4018. Aug 14, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i30.4012
5. Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections. Anaerobe. Volume 15, Issue 6, December 2009, Pages 274-280
6. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: A double blind, randomized, controlled trial. de Vrese, Michael et al. Clinical Nutrition, Auguest 2005, Volume 24, Issue 4, 481 - 491
7. Effects of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on body fat reductions in pre-obese adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Junichi MINAMI, Noriyuki IWABUCHI, Miyuki TANAKA, Koji YAMAUCHI, Jin-zhong XIAO, Fumiaki ABE, Naoki SAKANE. 2018 Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 67-75
8. Dose-response effect of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on whole gut transit time and functional gastrointestinal symptoms in adults. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep; 46(9): 1057–1064. 2011 Jun 13. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2011.584895
9. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Strains on Intestinal Barrier Function and Inflammatory Response. Front. Immunol., 29 March 2019
10. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in inflammatory bowel disease. Ghouri Y, Richards D, Rahimi E, Krill J, Jelinek KA, DuPont A. Dovepress, 9 December 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 473—487
The Biofase/Profase combination is the best, most effective remedy for Candida I have yet discovered.
Great work, Dan.
Dr. Dean W. Manders
I bought Biofase and Profase (B/P) mid June/15. Skin candida was suppressed by previous treatments but was still there. From the first day I knew B/P was different. On day 2 there was a giant flare up on the skin - candida in it's last dying throes. At eight days, the skin is normal almost "everywhere." Chronic loose BM's are becoming solid. Skin in ears, mouth and scalp is almost back to normal. Absolutely looking forward to a return to excellent health with B/P. Sending some to my friends, as well.
After 1.5 years of incessant and painful yeast infections, your yeast diet and combination intestinal yeast program have saved me! I would like to continue my program, so I am re-ordering my Biofase and Profase.
Thank you again for making your information accessible to anyone of any financial background!
I have been doing the cleanse you recommended and taking the Profase, and the spots near my mouth have decreased significantly, so many thanks.
I was using 8-9 CP-1 at a time before Profase came out, and I wondered if the Profase would be as strong as that. I found out the Profase capsules are stronger for sure since I am now only using 1 at a time. I've had to stop using them right now as I prepare for a SIBO breath test. I'm on day three and missing them dearly. They seem to be helping a lot with the inflammation, and gas (build up). After being off of them for just a few days, I'm noticing that big time!
My dental hygienist diagnosed candida albicans, I went to my PCP who prescribed Nystatin which didn't help much because I hadn't researched enough on my own, and was still incorporating bad sugar and processed foods into my diet. When I got a stronger prescription of clortrimazole, I was already reading your website and appreciated your common sense approach and variety of sites to find info and the recommended probiotics, both outside your website and both Biofase and Profase. I think I probably have it in my intestines, I am following your recommended yeast killing protocol for that.
In two days, my brain fog improved, I had no allergy symptoms, no cough at night, more energy than in several years, and have always felt misdiagnosed for allergies. I was getting allergy shots for years to treat my chronic sinus infections and finally weaned off the shots 2 yrs ago. Up until my diagnosis with candida albicans, I thought my sinus troubles were back. Now I am not using Flonase, no more Benadryl at night and no more daily dose of Claritin since I began your treatment and follow the Candida Yeast Diet on your site.
Thank you for the common sense approach and the Major Epiphany I had when I read your site! I am doing good so far and am amazed at how quickly my system is bouncing back when I thought I was just feeling really old! Also depression...waiting for springtime to discuss with my doc about discontinuing anti-depressant. I will continue to eat healthier and stay on both Biofase and Profase.
Many, many thanks!
I want to thank you for your product and for your time/information you gave me over the phone. I love the Biofase and Profase! Since I've been taking both I have had reduced symptoms. I love these products! I will forever take these for maintenance. I have tried many other products out there and I have found Profase and Biofase to be superior. Please don't ever stop making them!!
Thank you again,
Truly, I have never felt like this before!! U are really God sent because as you may know how yeast infection is, I had given all my burden to God, and he is working through you Dan. I'm now waiting for the second order of Biofase and Profase but the remaining symptoms are just minor and I can now realize the best food to re-introduce in my diet by testing and feel it immediately. I really appreciate your efforts.
I just wanted to let you know that Profase worked for me possibly the best of all the probiotics though I haven't been as strict with my diet as I should be. I'm just about to make another order.
Wishing you a happy and healthy new year!
Any questions about Profase or yeast infections in general, please feel free to contact us from the contact page of this website or talk to your doctor.
L Plantarum References:
1. Quatravaux, S.; Remize, F.; Bryckaert, E.; Colavizza, D.; Guzzo, J. Examination of Lactobacillus plantarum lactate metabolism side effects in relation to the modulation of aeration parameters. J Appl. Microbiol. 2006, 101, 903-912.
2.Siezen, R.J.; van Hylckama Vlieg, J.E. Genomic diversity and versatility of Lactobacillus plantarum, a natural metabolic engineer. Microbial Cell Factories 2011, 10, 1-13.
3.Jockers, David. "Learn about the Importance of Good Bacteria, Part II: Lactobacillus Plantarum." NaturalNews. NaturalNews, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2013.
4.Adlerberth, I.; Ahrne, S.; Johansson, M.L.; Molin, G.; Hanson, L.A.; Wold, A.E. A mannose-specific adherence mechanism in Lactobacillus plantarum conferring binding to the human colonic cell line HT-29. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 1996, 62, 2244-2251.
5.Liu, Z.; Zhang, P.; Ma, Y.; Chen, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Chu, Z.; Qin, H. Lactobacillus plantarum prevents the development of colitis in IL-10-deficient mouse by reducing the intestinal permeability. Mol. Biol. Rep. 2011, 38, 1353-1361.
6.Ko, J.S.; Yang, H.R.; Chang, J.Y.; Seo, J.K. Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits epithelial dysfunction and interleukin-8 secretion induced by tumor necrosis factor-a. World J. Gastroenterol. 2007, 13, 1962-1965.
7.Sunanliganon, C.; Thong-Ngam, D.; Tumwasorn, S.; Klaikeaw, N. Lactobacillus plantarum B7 inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth and attenuates gastric inflammation. World J Gastroenterol. 2012, 18, 2472-2480.
8.Rio, B.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Gomes-Solecki, M. Immune response of Lactobacillus plantarum expressing Borrelia burgdorferi OspA is modulated by the lipid modification of the antigen. PLoS ONE 2010, 5, e11199.
9. BMC Oral Health. 2010 Jul 2;10:18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-10-18. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli--an in vitro study.
Lactobacillus Casei References:
1. Cai, H., Rodriguez, B.T., Zhang, W., Broadbent, J.R., and Steele, J.L. “Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from different ecological niches suggests frequent recombination and niche specificity”. Microbiology. 2007. Volume 153. p. 2655-2665.
2. Marcos, A., Warnberg, J., Nova, E., Gomez, S., Alvarez, A., Alvarez, R., Mateos, J.A., and Cobo, J.M. “The effect of milk fermented by yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on the immune response of subjects under academic examination stress”. European Journal of Nutrition. 2004. Volume 43. p. 381-389.
3. Millette, M., Luquet, F.M., and Lacroix, M. "In vitro growth of selected pathogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus- and Lactobacillus casei- fermented milk". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2007. Volume 44. p. 314-319.
4. Infect Immun. 1997 Oct;65(10):4165-72. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Wagner RD1, Pierson C, Warner T, Dohnalek M, Farmer J, Roberts L, Hilty M, Balish E.
Bifidobacteriam Longum References
1. Reinert, Birgit. "Friendly tenants in the human gut: The genome of B. longum". 2002. Genome News Network.
2. Doe Joint Genome Institute: Bifidobacterium longum. 2004
3. Xiao, J. Z.; Kondo, S.; Takahashi, N.; Miyaji, K.; Oshida, K.; Hiramatsu, A.; Iwatsuki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Hosono, A. (2003). "Effects of Milk Products Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on Blood Lipids in Rats and Healthy Adult Male Volunteers". Journal of Dairy Science 86 (7): 2452–2461
4. Amenta, Michele et al. "Diet and chronic constipation. Benefits of oral supplementation with symbiotic zir fos (Bifidobacterium longum W11 + FOS Actilight)". Acta Biomed. Published December 2006.
Bifidobacteriam Breve References
1. A probiotic mixture is effective in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep 1;22(5):387-94. PMID: 16128676
2. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve on patients undergoing chemotherapy for pediatric malignancies improves their intestinal environments. Support Care Cancer. 2010 Jun;18(6):751-9. Epub 2009 Aug 14. PMID: 19685085
3. A combination of Bifidobacterium Breve and prebiotic galactooligosaccharides exhibit anti-MRSA activity. Microbiol Immunol. 2010 May ;54(5):265-75. PMID: 20536723
4. The probiotics Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei reduce the intestinal absorption of bisphenol A by facillitating its excretion. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008 Jun;72(6):1409-15. Epub 2008 Jun 7. PMID: 18540113
5. Effects of probiotic bacteria on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity of elderly. Braz Dent J. 2012;23(5):534-8.
6. Modulation of Toll-like receptor ligands and Candida albicans-induced cytokine responses by specific probiotics. Cytokine. 2012 Jul;59(1):159-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2012.03.020. Epub 2012 Apr 18.
Bifidobacterium Animalis Lactis References
1. Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012 Jan;36(1 Suppl):106S-17S. doi: 10.1177/0148607111430817.
2. Dietary Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) enhances resistance to oral Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2000;44(4):213-22.
3. Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2012 Mar;107(6):876-84. doi: 10.1017/S000711451100420X. Epub 2011 Sep 7.
4. Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN0191,2,3. 2001 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
5. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun. 1997 Oct;65(10):4165-72.
Bacillus Subtilis References
1. Hong, Huynh A.; Khaneja, Reena; Tam, Nguyen M.K.; Cazzato, Alessia; Tan, Sisareuth; Urdaci, Maria; Brisson, Alain; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Barnes, Ian; Cutting, Simon M. (2009). "Bacillus subtilis isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract". Research in Microbiology 160 (2): 134–43.
2. Oggioni MR, Pozzi G, Valensin PE, Galieni P, Bigazzi C (January 1998). "Recurrent septicemia in an immunocompromised patient due to probiotic strains of Bacillus subtilis". J. Clin. Microbiol. 36 (1): 325–6
3. Gibson G.R., 2005. Functional Foods: Perspectives on foods for specific health uses (FOSHU), Colette Shortt, Yakult UK. Volume 1, page 7-1.
4. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). "Scientific opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS microorganisms intentionally added to food or feed (2010 update)". EFSA J 8 (12): 1944. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1944 (inactive October 4, 2013).
5. Ciprandi, G., A. Scordamaglia, D. Venuti, M. Caria, and G. W. Canonica. (1986). "In vitro effects of Bacillus subtilis on the immune response". Chemioterapia 5 (6): 404–7. PMID 3100070.
6. Ehrenberg CG (1835). Physikalische Abhandlungen der Koeniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin aus den Jahren 1833–1835. pp. 145–336.
7. Carpenter LR, Moy JN, Roebuck KA (March 2002). "Respiratory syncytial virus and TNF alpha induction of chemokine gene expression involves differential activation of Rel A and NF-kappa B1". BMC Infect. Dis. 2: 5
8. Feng, J., et al. "Effect of Fermented Soybean Meal on Intestinal Morphology and Digestive Enzyme Activities in Weaned Piglets". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2007 April.
9. European Bioinformatics Institute. “Bacteria Genomes – Bacillus Subtilis.” (2006-2009)
10. Microbiol Res. 2018 Mar;207:19-32. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.002. Epub 2017 Nov 8. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde from marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis inhibits biofilm and virulence of Candida albicans.
1. R Hartemink , K M Van Laere , F M Rombouts (1997). "Growth of enterobacteria on fructo-oligosaccharides". J Appl Microbiol 83 (3): 367–374.
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