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Wormwood as an Antifungal & Antimicrobial Agent

Posted 12/08/2020

Written by Pharmaceutical Scientist Dr. Harmeet Kaur, PhD

This article talks about Wormwood's effects on yeasts, bacteria, viruses , protozoa, parasite infections and its other health benefits. Along with possible safety issues and side effects.

Wormwood or Artemisia absinthium L. belongs to the family Asteraceae, and is an aromatic, perennial small shrubby medicinal plant native to the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In France, it was commonly used as a drink called absinthe, which causes dementia. The raw material obtained from this species is Absinthii aetheroleum and Absinthii herba.

The herb has always been of great pharmaceutical and botanical interest and is employed in folk medicine. In the 18th century, wormwood alcoholic decoctions were used as all-purpose remedies or “cure-alls”. Wormwood herb and its essential oil exhibited several pharmacological activities and were used mainly for their neuroprotective, gastrointestinal ailments antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, antihelmintic, wound healing, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and antimalarial proprieties.

Also, the herb is used to make tea for serving pregnant women during the labor pain and in treating sclerosis and leukemia. At the beginning of the 19th century, the wormwood-flavored alcoholic extracts and distillates have also been used as aperitifs (before-dinner drinks to stimulate appetite), and hence promote the large-scale production of absinthe.

Moreover, the herb has shown broad-spectrum antioxidant and anticancer activities and also exerted an effect on the GI tract and urinary system. Wormwood is also gaining importance as a cosmetic plant. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant have been credited to the presence of terpenes and flavonoids which are the major bioactive component of the essential oil [1,2].

Chemical Composition of Wormwood

The wormwood contains many phytochemical constituents namely, lactones, terpenoids (e.g., α-thujone, β-thujone, γ-terpinene, myrcene, 1,4-terpeniol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cadinene, trans-sabinyl acetate, guaiazulene, camphor, linalool, pinene), organic acids, essential oils, resins, phenols, and tannins. It also contains flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol), flavonoid glycosides such as isoquercitrin, quercitin-3-O-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnose glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and phenolic acids (syringic, coumaric, salicylic, vanillic, chlorogenic acids, and derivatives of caffeoylquinic acid) which contribute to the free radical scavenging mechanism.

Ahamad et al. stated that methanolic extract of A. absinthium comprises isoflavone glycosides (isoflavonyl glucosyl diester and bis-isoflavonyl dirhamnoside). Furthermore, major compounds of wormwood found in the SFE (supercritical fluid extraction) extracts as well as in the hydro-distilled essential oils were trans-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate, cis-epoxyocimene, chrysanthenol, and chrysanthenyl acetate [3].

Other vital constituents of wormwood are bitter sesquiterpenoid lactones, the main is a guaianolide dimer-absinthin (0.2–0.28%). The others are absinthin isomers (anabsin, artabsin, anabsinthin, and absintholide). Additional bitter compounds isolated from the plant include artamarin, artamarinin, artamaridinin, and artamaridin [4].

A. absinthium extracts contain high concentrations of the blue chamazulene-a compound from the group of azulenes, resulting from the transformation of the sesquiterpenoid matrix. Other azulenes isolated from the herb are 7-ethyl-1,4-dimethylazulene, 3,6-dihydrochamazulene, 7-ethyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-dimethylazulene, prochamazulenogen, and azulene. Other constituents present in smaller amounts are the coumarins (herniarin, coumarin), chalcone-cardamonin, fatty acids, carotenoids, tannins, lignans, and resinous substances. The composition of A. absinthium extract depends on the extractant used. An ethanolic extract has a significantly higher concentration of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins in comparison with aqueous and chloroform extracts [5].


Fig 1: Bioactive components present in A. absinthium (Wormwood)


Fig 2: Bitter components present in A. absinthium (Wormwood)

Wormwood Has Antibacterial Acivity

Wormwood exhibits effective antifungal and antibacterial activities. Numerous studies have shown the wide-spectrum inhibitory effect of compounds contained in wormwood against several microorganisms. Among them are bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, B. mycoides, Clostridium perfringens, Arthrobacter spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella. pneumoniae, Micrococcus lylae, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella sonnei, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the extracts from the plant are found effective against Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to Gram-negative bacteria [6].

In one study Mihajilov-Krstev et al find out the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wormwood. The oil was obtained in 0.23% (v/w) yield by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total forty-seven constituents were identified, corresponding to 94.65% of the total oil, with the main constituents being α-phellandrene (10.29%), sabinyl acetate (13.64%), and sabinene (24.49%). The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was evaluated using reference strains of both Gram (+) bacteria such as S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium perfringens and Gram (-) bacteria like E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and Shigella sonnei.

Additionally, the clinically isolated strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, E. aerogenes, K. oxytoca, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis, from wounds and stools of patients were also assessed in vitro by the micro-well dilution assay. A. absinthium essential oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oil ranged from < 0.08 mg/mL (against Enterobacter aerogenes and P. mirabilis isolated from human stools, and against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolated from wounds) to 2.43 mg/mL (against S. aureus and K. oxytoca from stools).

The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oil was found in the range of 0.08 mg/mL (against E. aerogenes from stools, and K. oxytoca and S. aureus from wounds) to 38.80 mg/mL (against L. monocytogenes). Besides, essential oil from wormwood was reported to inhibit L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and B. cereus with MIC of 0.14, 0.62, and 0.8 µL/mL, respectively and it exerts its action by suppressing the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA, proteins, and polysaccharide in the bacterial cells [7].

Wormwood can be used in patients with postoperative wound infections caused by S. aureus. Moslemi et al investigated the antimicrobial effects of wormwood against surgical wounds infected by S. aureus in a rat model. The circular incision was created on the dorsal inter-

scapular region of the rats and the wound was infected with  1 × 104 CFU of  S. aureus. Results have shown that the topical application of a hydroalcoholic extract of wormwood on the infected wound sites exerted substantial antibacterial activity against S. aureus which has been credited to the composition of the oil, mainly consists of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The antimicrobial action recorded maybe because of synergistic action between major (e.g., p-cymene, camphor, caryophyllene) and the minor (e.g., α-pinene, β-pinene) compounds in A. absinthium [8].

A subsequent study by Habibipour et al tested the effectiveness of a hydro-alcoholic extract from the wormwood against Haemophilus influenzae, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, and Klebsiella pneumonia by the disc diffusion method. The extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all the bacterial strains except K. pneumoniae. The inhibition zone for P. aeruginosa was 11.9 mm, for H. influenza 18.4 mm, B. subtilis 14.4 mm, for B. cereus 20.4 mm, and 15.9 mm for S. aureus with a 750 mg/mL dose of the extract. Bactericidal effects of plant extract against H. influenzae were equal to standard antibiotic ofloxacin. The results demonstrated that sensitivities of Gram-positive bacteria like S. aureus and B. cereus were higher to plants extracts compared with Gram-negative bacteria such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia [9].

Sengul et al. demonstrated that methanolic extract of wormwood exerted a higher inhibitory effect against B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. typhimurium, S. thermophilus, Pseudomonas putida, and Providencia alcalifaciens, in comparison to the novobiocin and ofloxacin [10].

Juteau et al. stated that the antibacterial effect of essential oil extracted from A. absinthium against S. aureus (sensitive and resistant strains), E. coli, S. typhi, Proteus vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumonia was considerably higher in comparison to gentamicin and hence can be used as a natural preservative in food and pharmaceutical industries [11].

In 2011, Fiamegos et al determined the antimicrobial potential of wormwood, with particular stress on the effect of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives on the ability to inhibit efflux pump (major components of resistance to many classes of antibiotics) activity in Gram-positive bacteria. The various pathogens such as E. coli, E. faecalis, S. aureus, and C. albicans were tested. The results demonstrated that the isolated compounds such as chlorogenic acid, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caused inhibition of efflux pump activity in Gram-positive bacteria [12]. Hence signifying the importance of wormwood in reducing the antibiotic resistance of pathogens.

Recently, Bartkiene et al. investigated the antimicrobial activity of the wormwood water extract and essential oil (EO`), Lactobacillus uvarum LUHS245 (lactic acid bacteria strain), and blackcurrants juice (BCJ) preparation against S. enterica, K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, B. cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis Pasteurella multocida. The Lactobacillus uvarum LUHS245 strain inhibited 14 from the 15 tested pathogenic strains, and the highest inhibition zones were found against B. cereus and Pasteurella multocida were found (21.5 ± 0.3 and 22 ± 0.2 mm, respectively). The wormwood water extract showed antimicrobial activity against Pasteurella multocida with MIC value of 20.4 ± 4.1 mm, however A. absinthium EO at 0.1% concentration inhibited Pasteurella multocida, MRSA, S. epidermidis, B. cereus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecium. They concluded that A. absinthium EO, lactic acid bacteria strain LUHS245, and BCJ formulation immobilized in agar is the best one that consisted of all these and this formulation showed higher total phenolic compounds content, as well as higher overall acceptability [13].

Wormwood's Mechanism of Action

The antimicrobial action of wormwood has been attributed to the presence of flavonoids and terpenes which mainly affect the structural and functional properties of the bacterial cell membrane. These compounds mainly permeabilize the membranes making them swell and increase membrane fluidity. These compounds also inhibit the respiratory enzymes leading to a partial dissipation of the pH gradient and electrical potential due to the increased permeability to hydrogen ions.

Most of the terpenoids inhibit microbial oxygen uptake and oxidative phosphorylation hence arrested cellular respiration. The less activity against Gram-negative bacteria can be attributed to the presence of an external phospholipid membrane that is infiltrated to lipophilic components. Lack of this membrane in Gram-positive bacteria causes easier entrance of the essential oil and extract components to the bacterium. This process may cause an increase in ionic permeability and permeation of vital inner cellular components which finally result in damage to the enzyme system of the bacterium [14].

Wormwood's Antifungal Activity

Several reports have shown the antifungal potential of the wormwood which could be related to its essential oil. The antifungal action shown by essential oils present in wormwood makes it an essential natural product in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food industries.

Kordali et al evaluated the antifungal potential of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of wormwood against 11 plant fungi and compared it with a commercial antifungal reagent, benomyl. The essential oil (which includes nuciferol propionate, nuciferol butanoate, chamazulene, caryophyllene oxide, alpha-terpineol, borneol, spathulenol, cubenol, beta-eudesmol, and terpinen-4-ol) exhibited potent inhibitory activity at a very broad spectrum against all of the tested fungi [15].

Kamel Msaada et al find out the chemical variability and antifungal activity of wormwood methanolic extracts and EOs of the wild population cultivated in four distinct regions of Tunisia. The wormwood EOs exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the three phytopathogenic  Fusarium culmorum,  F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, while only essential oil of Jérissa proved to be active against  Rhizoctonia solani (25.39±0.57 %) and Sclerotinia (23.61±2.12 %). The antifungal activity could be credited to the presence of monoterpene chamazulene [16].

Juteau et al. reported that Croatian A. absinthium essential oil mainly contains β-thujone and (Z)-epoxyocimene, while French A. absinthium essential oil belongs to chrysanthenyl acetate and (Z)-epoxyocimene. The Croatian chemotype revealed a higher fungicidal action against Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri and Candida albicans in comparison to the French one containing no thujone, hence signifying the key role of thujones in the antimicrobial effect of A. absinthium essential oil. Furthermore, A. absinthium EO from Uruguay was found rich in thujone and exhibited antifungal effects against  Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria sp. while essential oil from the Turkish population contains chamazulene and camphor, 1,8-cineole as main constituents and demonstrated fungicidal effect against 34 species of fungi such as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum [11, 17].

Another study by Ewais et al documented that A. absinthium essential oil exhibited a potent antifungal effect on Aspergillus nigerA. flavus, Trichophyton mentagrophytesEpidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canisCandida albicans, and C. neoformans with a zone diameter range of 13-25 mm. and MIC was 50-100 µg/mL [18].

A study by Joshi et al specified that Micrococcus luteus was more susceptible to wormwood essential oil with a MIC value of 25 ± 4 µg/mL, followed by M. flavus (58  ±  8 µg/mL)B. subtilis (65  ±  8 µg/mL)Penicillium chrysogenum (84  ±  15 µg/mL), and A. fumigatus with MIC values of 91  ±  13 µg/mL, respectively [19].

Recently, Rodríguez-Torres et al synthesized A. absinthium-silver nanoparticles (A. absinthium-Ag NPs) nanoparticles and evaluated them for fungicidal activity against three pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus.

The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited lower MIC and MFC values in comparison to those shown by Ag NPs, demonstrating that the bioactive constituents present in wormwood synergistically enhanced the antifungal activity of Ag NPs [20].

Wormwood's Antiviral Activity

The wormwood extracts also exhibit antiviral effects. Anwar et al. reported the antiviral effect of wormwood against viral hepatitis and this effect was attributed to the presence of various bioactive constituents that inhibit the integrase enzyme from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) from connecting the DNA from the host cell with the reversibly transcribed viral DNA. They mentioned that A. absinthium relief 80–90% of symptoms from viral hepatitis [21].

Ansari et al. reported that the oral administration of A. absinthium extract to 30 patients with HBeAg-negative or positive chronic hepatitis B for 12 weeks showed potential antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) by suppression of HBV DNA levels along with normalization of inflammation and functions of the liver in a significant fashion with no substantial adverse effects [22].

Wormwood Works for Protozoa

Wormwood and its extracts have antiprotozoal activities. The plant extracts exhibited antiprotozoal action on several large phylum of parasitic alveolates called apicomplexa parasites (e.g., PlasmodiumEimeriaToxoplasmaTheileria, and Babesia) and other protozoan parasites (e.g.  Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei). Avian coccidiosis, is the most important infection in livestock caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Eimeria Anticoccidial activity of wormwood extracts has been testified in ruminants as well as in poultry; though, the activity depends on the number of oocysts and the type of Eimeria species. Hasan Habibi et al reported that the aqueous extract of A. absinthium at a dose of 3 mg/kg of feed per day prompted a significant reduction in the number of oocysts in broiler chicken infected with Eimeria tenella and can be used as a prophylactic treatment for moderate coccidiosis [23].

Nozari et al. reported the potent antiprotozoal effect of A. absinthium extract and demonstrated that 100% tachyzoites were killed at 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL concentrations of the extract [24].

Tariku et al evaluated the antileishmanial action of A. absinthium and Echinops kebericho essential oils on the axenic amastigote and promastigote types of two Leishmania strains (L. aethiopica and L. donovani). The oils from both herbs have shown activity against axenic amastigote forms (EC50 0.24 -42.00 nl/ml) and promastigote (MIC 0.0097- 0.1565 µl/ml) of both Leishmania species. Their action was attributed to the presence of oxygenated monoterpene camphor and the sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone[25].

Furthermore, Bailen et al. reported that essential oils from A. absinthium cultivated under different conditions demonstrated antiparasitic action on L. infantum at all the tested concentrations, however, the EOs showed activity against T. cruzi at high concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/mL [26].

Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of A. absinthium EOs have also been reported by Martínez-Díaz et al [27]. Tamargo et al. formulated the A. absinthium EOs nanocochleates (EO-Aa-NC) and evaluated them in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis and non-infected macrophages from BALB/c mice. EO-Aa-NC revealed antileishmanial activity on non-infected peritoneal macrophage and L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 27.7 ± 5.6 and 21.5 ± 2.5 µg/mL. Mice treated with this formulation (4 days/30 mg/kg/intralesional route/4 times) showed no sign of weight loss or death. While the same formulations decreased the disease by about 50% in the model of murine experimental animals which was higher in comparison with free A. absinthium essential oil and control group. Hence encochleation of essential oil of herb resulted in a stable, tolerable, and effective antileishmanial formulation, aiding systemic delivery of EO, with increased activity in comparison to free EO-Aa [28].

Some researchers have also reported the antimalarial action of A. absinthium herb. In one study, in a four-day test, the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of A. absinthium has revealed definite schizontocidal activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice. The alcoholic extract given orally at the 74 mg/kg dose level caused the highest suppression of parasitemia. The antimalarial action of sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, isolated from Artemisia extract, and semisynthetic derivatives of artemisinin involves stimulation of both heme and mitochondrial-mediated degradation cascade that lead to lipid peroxidation resulting in cytotoxic effect exerted via reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and depolarization of both mitochondria and cell membrane. In another study, artemisinin was found to cause irreversible inhibition by the formation of covalent bonds to the vital metabolic enzymes which include S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase (SAMS), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PyrK), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and spermine synthase (SpdSyn) [29].

Wormwood Can Be Used for Other Parasites

A.absinthium has been used traditionally by people as a vermifuge and can be used as an alternative to synthetic agents in the management of diseases in animals and humans caused by parasites. The anthelmintic action has been credited to the presence of high flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones, terpenes particularly α and β form of thujone The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of A. absinthium demonstrated greater activity on gastrointestinal nematodes called Haemonchus contortus of sheep in comparison with standard anthelmintic agent albendazole [30]. Furthermore, Mravčáková et al. presented that A. absinthium aqueous leaf extract was also strongly active against Haemonchus contortus [31].

Other studies revealed that in an in vitro model A. absinthium ethanol extract significantly decreased juvenile (L3) larval motility and the development of egg of Ascaris suum. Caner et al. showed that treatment with methanolic extract of A. absinthium decreased Trichinella spiralis larvae numbers in the muscle, diaphragm, quadriceps, tongue, and biceps-triceps rats muscles. Similarly, essential oils from the plant resulted in about a 66% decrease of adult T. spiralis parasites in mice intestine [32].

Wormwood's Other Health Benefits

Wormwood is one of the most recognizable species of the genus Artemisia in the world. This plant has been used for many years In European folk medicine, for various diseases, in particular for digestive ailments, diseases of the stomach, and lowering of body temperature. The recommended traditional use of the herb has been for the management of several disorders including hepatitis, hepatocyte enlargement, jaundice, gastritis, splenomegaly, dyspepsia and indigestion, gastric pain, flatulence, anemia, anorexia, jaundice, obesity, anemia, insomnia, and bladder diseases [5, 33].

It has also worked as a remedy for non-healing wounds and injuries. The plant has been used as a base for formulating balms and ointments for use on the skin. Furthermore, wormwood is employed to relieve pain during the menstrual cycle and childbirth. Additionally, A. absinthium ointment has been used externally to decrease the stiffness of joints and muscles along with help in healing bruises [34].

In Indian Unani medicine, A. absinthium is the main ingredient in the drug “Afsanteen”, which is used for hepatitis, edema, and chronic fever. A. absinthium and its extracts also possess a significant anti-inflammatory action which may be attributed to flavonoids and sesquiterpene type compounds. These compounds exhibit their anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of inflammatory regulators such as histamine, bradykinins, serotonin, and prostaglandins. The wormwood has also demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines such as breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7), human lung carcinoma cell line (A549), human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116), etc [35].

The herb has also neuroprotective action since due to its antioxidant potential, it diminishes brain damage, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and restores the activity of enzymes involved in reducing oxidative stress [36]. It also exhibits hypocholesterolemic hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic, activity. The bioactive compounds present in it generally act by decreasing the triacylglycerol and serum cholesterol levels by 3-8-fold. The lipid-lowering action of the plant is also accredited to its cholestatic action via the removal or breakdown of lipoproteins and/or abolition of lipid hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosomes secreted by the hepatocytes [37].

It is extensively used in the food industry for the production of spirits, bitters, and aperitifs. The characteristic odor of the plant makes it essential as an insect repellent and this action is linked to absinthin (sesquiterpene lactone) secretion, which suppresses the growth of neighboring plants. It has also been applied as a repellent to fleas and moths. Several studies have shown that A. absinthium and its essential oil possess acaricidal, insecticidal, and repellent properties against flies, ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes [38].


Toxicity and Side Effects of Wormwood

The adverse reactions have been reported by the use of A. absinthium in individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular conditions, musculoskeletal disorders, renal dysfunction, and neurological conditions.

It has been reported to have a negative interaction with alcohol, antiarrhythmic, and antiangiogenic drugs.

The World Health Organization sturdily discourages the use of the herb as the sole treatment for malaria, due to the potential for the malarial parasite to develop resistance to it.

Long-term use of A. absinthium essential oil may cause toxic reactions and mental disorders in humans with clinical manifestations including brain injury, intestinal cramps, vertigo, vomiting, nausea, insomnia, restlessness, urine retention, seizures, tremors, and hallucinations.

Lachenmeier et al. reported the neurotoxic effects of wormwood due to the presence of thujone and its analogs. Thujone is an antagonist of the Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor that displays an epileptic-like convulsion by rapidly regulating the GABA-gated chloride channel.

Consistently, long-term treatment with high doses of A. absinthium leads to mild chromosome aberration. A. absinthium essential oil should be avoided by breastfeeding mothers, pregnant females, children under the age of 18, peptic ulcer patients, individuals with allergy and hyperacidity. 

A. absinthium stimulates the significant blockage of acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, this may be the main cause of chronic diarrhea in some situations because of increased acetylcholine concentration required to stimulate muscarinic receptors in the duodenum [39].

To conclude A. absinthium is a remarkable plant that is commonly referred to as wormwood. It has been used in folk medicine against various diseases. In modern times, A. absinthium has been the subject of medicinal chemistry as a whole herb and its essential oil. Numerous studies have also reported the biological activity from its extracts. Research on the plant has revealed a large number of compounds in the herb and its essential oil with variable chemical compositions rich in bitter sesquiterpenoid, lactones, flavonoids, azulenes, phenolic acids, tannins, and lignans. Due to the presence of these chemical constituents, it possesses antifungal, neuroprotective, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, acaricidal, antimalarial, antidepressant, and hepatoprotective activities.

About the Author

Dr. Harmeet Kaur received her Bachelors in Pharmacy from Guru Nanak Dev University in Amritsar, India in 2000. Guru Nanak Dev University is a state owned university with an "A" grade nationally.

Dr. Kaur received her Masters in Medicinal Chemistry from the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research in 2002.

In 2015 Dr. Kaur was awarded her Ph.D in Pharmaceutical Sciences from Maharshi Dayanad University in Rohtak, India.

Dr. Kaur is presently a Senior Research Scientist at Maharshi Dayanand University in India.

Dr. Kaur has over 35 published Research papers concerning infectious diseases caused by yeasts, fungi, and bacteria using both prescription drugs and natural plant compounds. She has also performed many studies on cancer cells.

Of particular importance to us, is her multiple experiments performed on Candida albicans and pathogenic bacteria using natural compounds. Because of this experience, we are thrilled to have her on the YeastInfectionAdvisor team.

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Dr. Kaur's Medical References

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